Apenko S.N. Developing leadership in project with the use of verbal learning and visual information

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S.N. Apenko


The importance of leadership skills and positive leadership behavior in modern organizations is extremely high. This is due to the fact that the corporate, group and personal success in an unstable environment and crises, risks and uncertainties depends on strong leadership, namely the ability to identify appropriate goals and means of achieving them, to unite around common values of different people and lead them along. Leadership is one of the core competences of a graduate of any high school, regardless of the profile and specialization of training. Due to the increasing relevance of the leadership of its formation in higher education and further on training programs and professional development is necessary to pay close attention. There are important positions and activities, for which the role of leadership is hard to overestimate. Thus, the work in the project closely overlaps with effective leadership actions. Not for nothing leadership competencies are included in the set of basic requirements for project management professionals identified in all international standards to project management. Developing leadership in project teams is a priority for a large number of training programs on project management. Attention is paid to the importance of forming the image of the leader and leadership style behavior through visual and verbal channels that best meet the specific project activities.

To answer the question of how to build leadership by bringing the tools and techniques of visualization and verbalization of the information is necessary to clearly define the essence of leadership.

Leadership - is a multifaceted phenomenon, it manifests itself through:

  • 1. Ability to lead people through a process of influencing them to achieve certain goals (leadership qualities);
  • 2. Process of influence, during which implemented the ability to conduct (action leader in certain situations);
  • 3. Process of interpersonal influence aimed at solving group goals (mutual influence of people in groups).

In all three aspects the important tools of leadership are the visual and verbal information channels. This is due to the fact that lies at the heart of leadership influence, dependence and power, which require different resources. In particular, these resources are the gift of speech and belief of the word argument, as well as non-verbal cues that define the image of the leader, for example, his manner of speaking, gestures, facial expressions, clothing style. Verbal and visual signals combine to determine the effectiveness of leadership behavior. Reported aspects of the essence of leadership help to select more accurately the methods of leadership formation in the process of learning with the use of verbal and visual communication channels. These methods are the role-playing exercises, trainings, business games, presentations, group exercises and other interactive techniques. In all these methods, on the one hand, used verbal and visual means, on the other hand, the ability to develop an effective transfer and interchange information with the visual characters and words. That is, the ability to effectively integrate speech and imaging agents act together and to build leadership. This fact makes even more seriously the technology implementation of visual and verbal ways of communication in the process of learning leadership.

Referring to the experience of leadership training gained in the Omsk FM Dostoevsky State University. Leadership development programs are implemented through courses of bachelor's and master's degrees, training and retraining of specialists of enterprises and organizations. Apply several innovative technologies forming leadership abilities. Its novelty lies not in the training tools that are already known, and the unique combination of methodological tools, which are based on the principle of integration of visual and verbal means of communication. The novelty is manifested in the adaptation of these technologies to the features of leadership training in the projects. The main purpose implicit in technology is the most open leadership skills and build motivation to lead students through the involvement of all information channels. Among the innovative to the educational and business environment technologies used in our programs, - «Open-mind», «World-café».

Technology «World-café» is a simple and very effective method of creating the right environment for a fruitful discussion of important issues, including the problem of leadership. The method allows engaging in the discussion of collective intelligence and a full-scale, multi-level dialogue. It involves the creation of a cafe atmosphere: tables are arranged, for each table put 4-5 chairs, soft music turn, serves drinks (tea, coffee). The panelists for each table are given a question to be analyzed about 20-30 minutes. The time spent on analysis of the issue, called “round”. At the end of each round for each table there is one person - the so-called "host table", and the remaining members are at the other tables - possibly members of one table moving at different tables - and analyze other topics. This happens as long as the participants will discuss at all the tables. Then, the answers to the questions are recorded on the sheets. Then the collective analysis of the proposed ideas comes.

«Open-mind» Technology implies that the groups are given a specific question (each has his own group) to which they within a specified time receive answers from other groups. The search for answers in the following way: for example, a team member number one raises his hand and says, "I am ready to answer," and is looking for a free party to the other group. Approaching the other participant groups, such as number 2, he asks his question and fixes it, and after giving the response team member number 2 asks his question to number one member of the group. Next, the members of group number 1 and number 2 raise their hands and say, "I am ready to answer!" Move on with other people. The task - to get as many answers to the question as possible. Then everyone goes back to their groups, which analyzes the responses and presented general presentation. The advantages of this technology lie in the fact that they allow you as soon as possible to get enough information from a large number of people. From the point of view of the formation of leadership, these technologies are useful in that they help to develop such relevant for project team forms of leadership as divided and group leadership. Indeed, in today's projects are not so important leaders of lone as it is gaining importance the leadership of all team members, in which each in accordance with the scope of their leadership potential leads the followers. Even more in demand in the projects team leadership provided by the high coordination of actions of team members. The above-mentioned technologies allow the development of these forms of leadership, as well as involving and inspiring leadership.

At the moment, was pilot-tested an innovative training program called "Emotional color leader: how and why?" Aimed at the development of emotional leadership and is intended for students of the Presidential Management Training Program. The program was developed by the author of this article together with the head of the training department of one of the largest enterprises in Omsk, a certified business-trainer. Innovation of training is, first, the development of emotional leadership in the project and the absence of programs with such content, and second, the complex of copyright leadership training methodical tools.

With the development of technology and the choice of teaching methods, we proceeded from the essence of emotional leadership, by which means the ability to influence others and lead them through the formation of certain emotions and influence their feelings, the emotional evaluation, the relationship [1, 2]. The influence of the leader focuses on: the emotional state (which feels a project team member), the ratio of (what judgment makes the officer), behavior (what makes the employee).

In line with this, we have developed training exercises. For example, the participants of the training are offered a list of emotions that are important for the leader to the followers. Students must pass and evoke emotion in the audience with using speech and non-verbal techniques. Next is a discussion of what is in the visual image and speech caused a particular emotion, what else could be applied to enhance the effect. The discussion generated "piggy bank" leader communications templates and followers to certain emotional influences. Here are examples of different techniques that can be used by leaders, realizing the emotional power and influence. The list is compiled by the training participants, these methods are analyzed by them in the discussion of the exercises results.

Speech techniques of emotional leadership.

  • 1. The use of emotive images, symbols, concepts. A description of the aim, purpose, the stimulus in the form of a bright image, causing the emotions.
  • 2. Creating a positive attitude: presentation of goals as the actually result (leader translates the dream into reality), a demonstration of confidence in the capabilities of a person, together with the formation of the image of "path" to the target, rendering path together with man.
  • 3. Using existing facilities or the creation of new ones and through them the challenge of emotions. Example: Setting of collective responsibility.
  • 4. The use of common values that cause emotions. Example: the value of family, friendship, mutual assistance, help loved ones. Depending on the context of the treatment of the values they can form different emotions.
  • 5. Using words that reinforce a positive attitude.
  • 6. Empathy. Example sentence: "I think I understand how you feel ...".
  • 7. Clarification of feelings that are actually experiencing a man using a setting of open questions.

Non-verbal methods of emotional leadership.

  • 1. Non-verbal images that cause emotions. Example: a demonstration of pictures of famous people (special effects - emotional leader photo in the circle of successful and recognized leaders), the images of children in advertising, etc.
  • 2. The color and sound emotional effects.
  • 3. The manifestation of charisma in appearance.
  • 4. Demonstration of expressivity, the manifestation of emotions in behavior. But emotions should be adequate to the situation, especially perceiving people, the personality structure of the leader.
  • 5. The use of non-verbal voice channels. Selection of intonation, tone, voice, volume, rate of speech, and so to the task of forming a certain emotion.
  • 6. Using gestures, posture, facial expressions, eye contact, and to express the emotional.

Unique and innovative technologies presented leadership training is that they take into account the specific features of the development of leadership in the project. First, the feature is the need to integrate verbal information and visualization, the use of images and symbols. Second, using these images requires the formation of a positive image of the leader to influence the development of constructive and humane individuals, groups and organizations. Third, you need to configure all elements of the complex structure of the image leader, embodied in the style of leadership behavior that is recognized by the word, image, thought, and motivation. Fourth, it should be aware of the high probability and sometimes deliberately created by the mismatch between the word and the visual image when a person claims to leadership, forms leadership style of behavior, but does not develop the other components, for example, motivation, values, way of thinking, etc. It talking about this particular issue, and as an opportunity to create artificial leadership, achievement of individual elements of the image of the leader through learning, but not through the underlying processes of development of all elements of leadership potential. Fifth, it is necessary to take into account the presence of the inverse multi-channel communication between leaders and followers through the exchange of verbal and visual symbols and meanings.

In conclusion, it must be emphasized that leadership - is a multifaceted phenomenon. He is difficult to teach and be taught, it is difficult to find a common and effective practices for the development and application of leadership. It is important to understand that leadership is both a science and an art. Leadership - it is the experience and skill, because many of the skills and qualities necessary for a leader, you can not get in the classroom. Becoming a leader is in the process of gaining practical experience and personal development, the inclusion of creativity, creation and development of new methods of leadership. But leadership is also a science, because it requires extensive knowledge which helps the person to pass their way to practice to their own leadership. Familiarity with studies issues on leadership helps professionals to analyze situations from different points of view and learn to be a more effective leader. Therefore, leadership is needed to form and develop as a learning process, and in the course of practice throughout life.


  • 1. Goleman D. Emotional Leadership: The art of managing people on the basis of emotional intelligence / Daniel Goleman, Richard Boyatzis, Annie McKee, Per. from English. - Moscow: Alpina Business Books, 2005.
  • 2. Chapman M. Emotional Intelligence. - Moscow: Publishing House Hippo, 2010.

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