Власик Н.В. Teaching aids and teaching materials in classroom learning

Матеріал з PSYH.KIEV.UA -- Вісник психології і соціальної педагогіки

Перейти до: навігація, пошук

Власик Надія Володимирівна – студентка Педагогічного інституту Київського університету імені Бориса Грінченка, напрям підготовки «Початкова освіта», кафедра іноземних мов і методик їх навчання Київського університету імені Бориса Грінченка

Стаття розкриває головні тенденції у викладанні англійської мови. Використання різноманітних навчальних посібник та дидактичних матеріалів на уроках англійської мови.

Ключові слова: підручник, навчальний посібник, механічні навчальні матеріали, немеханічні навчальні матеріали, візуальні матеріали,аудіо-відео матеріали, навчальні картки, карти, настінний матеріал.

Статья раскрывает основные тенденции в преподавании английского языка. Использование различных учебных пособие и дидактических материалов на уроках английского языка.

Ключевые слова: учебник, учебное пособие, механические учебные материалы, немеханические учебные материалы, визуальные материалы, аудио-видео материалы, учебные карточки, карты, настенный материал.

The article reveals the major trends in the teaching of English. In is discovered the peculiarities of usage a variety of textbooks and teaching materials for English lessons.

Key words: books, textbooks, teaching materials, mechanical, non-mechanical training materials, visuals, audio and video materials, educational cards, cards, wall material.


Relevance of the topic

During the last few years important developments have taken place in this field. As a result there is a great variety of teaching aids and teaching materials at the teacher's disposal.

To teach a foreign language effectively the teacher needs teaching aids and teaching materials.

The analysis of research

People always resorted to the use of aids to the success of education of the younger generation.

In ancient times, parents have taught their children up with the help of colored sticks, bones of animals and other objects. In the later time, as we know from the literature, our colleagues who lived in ancient society, while literacy use planks , which wrote the pointed metal rod - stylus.

Use of technology in teaching foreign languages starting in the first and second decades of the twentieth century, when the "miracle century" - gramophone records . New means by which demonstrated "canned sound " attracted enthusiasts as teachers, but also some great professionals - linguists and teachers . Thus, even I. Espersen 1904, which holds the phonograph capable teacher can give students invaluable help. Russian scientist L. Scherba in 1914 published several works, which put emphasis on great importance phonograph ( gramophone ) to study phonetics, especially in the formation of correct skills rhythm tone alien .

The methodology of teaching foreign languages actively researched educational opportunities hardware. Special attention is paid to them in the writings K.B Karpov, O.S.Kure, M. V. Lyahovytskyi and others.

The purpose formulation of research

The purpose of this article is to study teaching aids and teaching materials in classroom learning.

The main material

Teaching aids, properly chosen and skillfully presented, should provide a variety of instructional methods and enhance the amount of actual learning which occurs. In order to help the teacher choose the best teaching aid for a given instructional task, a systems approach to media selection is outlined, and a checklist of questions is presented to aid in decision-making. Having made a decision based on instructional goals and available resources, the teacher may then turn to in-depth discussions of various media. Several presentation methods for still media, from chalkboard to the use of polaroid techniques with projection equipment, are considered, along with the limitations and advantages of each [1].

Teaching aids - devices which can help the foreign language teacher: -in presenting linguistic material to his pupils and fixing it in their memory; -in testing pupils: knowledge of words, phrases, and grammar items, their habits and skills in using them.

Teaching aids which are at teachers' disposal in contempo¬rary schools may be grouped into:

  • Non-mechanical aids
  • Mechanical (visual materials) aids.

Non-mechanical aids are: -a blackboard, the oldest aid in the classroom; -a flannelboard (a board covered with flannel or other soft fabric for sticking pictures on its surface), it is used for creat¬ing vivid situations which would stimulate pupils' oral language; -a magnet board, (a board which has the properties of a mag¬net, i. e., can attract special cards with letters, words, phrases or pictures on it) used with the same purpose as a flan¬nelboard; -a lantern which is used for throwing pictures onto a screen.

Mechanical (visual materials) aids are: -a language laboratory, this is a special classroom designed for language learning. It is equipped with individual private or semi-private stalls or booths. They are connected with a network, of audio wiring, the nerve centre of which is the monitoring console which has a switch board, making it possible to play tapes and send the programmer to all combination of booths.

Here are two main types of language laboratories — libra - and broadcast systems. The library system is suitable for students capable of independent study; each student selects his own material and uses it as he wishes. The broadcast sys-tem is suitable for classwork when the same material is pre¬sented at the same time to a whole group of students, and a class works together under a teacher's direction.

-Objects. There are a lot of things in the classroom such as pens and pencils of different sizes and colours, books, desks and many other articles which the teacher can use in presenting English names for them and in stimulating pupils' activities to utilize the words denoting objects they can see, touch, point to, give, take, etc. Toys and puppets may be widely used in teaching children of primary schools, which is the case in the specialized schools.

-Flashcards. Various types of flash cards are also useful for teaching activities. Flash cards generally have words, pictures, or a combination of the two. There are commercially available cards, cards that can be made by cutting pictures from magazines, etc., or the teacher can make them herself with drawings and writing. They can be used for a wide variety of activities, from drills to matching activities, to different communicative activities. Flashcards are usually made by the teacher or by the pupils under the teacher's direction, though the some ready-made flashcards [4]

-Sentence cards. They bear sentences or sentence pai which can be used with different aims. These cards are prepared by the teacher and distributed among the pupils for individual work during the lesson

-Wall-charts. A wall-chart is a big sheet of paper with drawings or words to be hung in the classroom and used for revision or generalization of some linguistic phenomenon Such as "English Tenses", "Passive Voice", "Ing-Forrm" "Rules of Reading".

-Posters or series of illustrations portraying a story. They are used as "props" in retelling a story read or heard. The teacher himself, or a pupil who can draw or paint, prepares such posters.

-Pictures. There are at least three types of pictures which are used in teaching a foreign language: •object pictures (e. g., the picture of a bed), •situational pictures (e. g., the picture of a boy lying in bed), •topical pictures (e. g., the picture of a bedroom).

They may be big enough to be hung in the classroom or small to be distributed among the pupils for each one to speak on his own. Pictures may be utilized separately (as single units) and in sets to be used as "props" for oral composition or retelling a story.

-Photographs. They are of two kinds: black-and-white and coloured. One can use photographs which are on sale c. g., "Views of Moscow" or have them taken, e. g , "We are going on a hike", or "Our family".

-Albums. An album is a book of pictures or photographs which is used for developing pupils' language skills. It usually contains textual material to supply pupils with necessary informations, and in this way make their work easier in describing these pictures.

-Maps and plans. In teaching English the maps of Great Britain, the USA, and other countries where English is spoken may be used. The plans, for example, of a house, a building, a piece of land with measurements may be a help in comprehension and thus stimulate pupils' speaking.

-Filmstrips. A filmstrip 3 represents a series of pictures, as a rule, situational pictures in certain sequence which a learner sees while listening to a story from the teacher or the tape to reproduce it later. Special filmstrips are available. They last about 5—10 minutes and can be used with synchronized tapes. When a picture appears on the screen, the tape is heard. See, for example, "Great Britain", "London".

-Audio materials. Tapes and records or discs belong to audio materials. Tapes are usually prepared by the teacher (he selects the material and the speaker for recording). Tapes and recordsare used for teaching listening speaking, and reading aloud.

Audio is a flexible medium which means that there are many applications within an educational context. The examples of audio uses below show that audio can be used both directly for teaching, e.g. an activity is formed around an audio resource, or as incidental activity where audio plays a minor role.

-Audio-visual materials. Sound film loops are examples of audio-visual materials. Young children like to sing and play various games that is why songs and games should constitute an important part of teaching materials. 4 Folksongs and popular current songs develop a feeling for the distinctive culture being studied. They furnish a frame work for pronunciation practice. Games give an opportunity for spontaneous self-expression in the foreign language and can be used as a device for relaxation [6].

Films, Specially prepared educational films for la 1 guage teaching have appeared, e. g., "The Mysterioll Bridge", "Robert Burns", "Australia", "New York", '"WintS Sports" [3].

In recent years more and more is the question of the application of new information technologies in high school. Not only the newly created facilities and more and more and teaching methods , the new approach to learning . The primary purpose of teaching foreign languages is the formation and development of the communicative culture of students, teaching practical mastery of a foreign language [9].

The task of the teacher is to create conditions for the practical acquisition of language for each student to choose such training aids , which would each student to demonstrate their activity, their creativity. The task of the teacher - student enhance cognitive activities in learning foreign languages. Modern educational technology such as training in collaboration , project methods , the use of new information technologies , the Internet - resources to help realizuvatylychnostno -oriented approach to learning, providing individualized and differentiated learning abilities of children , taking into account , dispositions and so on.

Forms of work with computer training programs during language lessons include: -study of vocabulary ; -practicing pronunciation; -Learning dialogue and monologue speech ; -training; -practicing grammatical phenomena [5].

The possibilities of using the Internet - a huge resource . Global Internet creates conditions to obtain any necessary information to students and teachers , in any part of the world: regional studies material news to die young , articles and magazines about the necessary literature, etc.

Students may participate in testing, quizzes , competitions, contests , which are the Internet to correspond with peers in other countries , participate in chat rooms , video conferencing and more.

Students may be information on the problems which are at present in the project. This may work together Ukrainian students and their international peers with one or more countries [1].

-PowerPoint is an extremely popular presentation package and an alternative to using overhead transparencies for the production of interesting and visually attractive presentations. There is a temptation to use PowerPoint just because it exists. Refrain, for technology should not drive the selection of the teaching aid, but the particular teaching aid should be chosen according to its fitness for purpose in that particular teaching situation [10].

The main advantage in using PowerPoint is the flexibility, both in terms of the content of the presentation and the way in which the information is displayed. Graphs, drawings, tables and organisational charts make your presentation more interesting, but as a general rule keep presentations simple and clear. PowerPoint, like overhead transparencies, is most effectively used to emphasise the main points you wish to make. Many of the guidelines relevant to PowerPoint presentations are similar to those used in preparing overhead transparencies – here are additional points to remember: -limit the number of slides, for example, no more than 12 for a ten minute presentation -ensure text contrasts with the background, but avoid patterned backgrounds -if you are using pictures, charts, tables and diagrams, ensure you are complying with copyright law -standardise position, colours and styles -use only one or two animation or transition effects [8].

Technology and education are pretty intertwined these days and nearly every teacher has a few favorite tech tools that make doing his or her job and connecting with pupils a little bit easier and more fun for all involved.

For example, when teaching a unit on how to find a job, you might use the classified section of a newspaper. Once you have taught the learners key vocabulary, you might have the learners work in small groups to find an appropriate job for one of the students in the group using the classified listings. After that, you might have the learners report to the class on which job they chose for each learner and why they feel the student’s skills, experiences, and talents suit them for that job. provides the following “basic kit” of teaching aids, including objects, games, and materials.

1. Realia: clocks, food items, calendars, plastic fruits and vegetables, maps, household objects, real and play money, food containers, abacus, manual for learning to drive, and classroom objects; 2. Flash cards: pictures, words, and signs; 3. Pictures or photographs: personal, magazine, and others; 4. Tape recorder and cassette tapes, including music for imagery and relaxation; 5. Overhead projector, transparencies, and pens; video player and videos; 6. Pocket chart for numbers, letters, and pictures; 7. Alphabet sets 8. Camera for language experience stories to create biographies and autobiographies; 9. Games such as bingo and concentration: commercial or teacher-made; 10. Colored index cards to teach word order in sentences, to show when speakers change in dialogue, to illustrate question/answer format, and to use as cues for a concentration game; 11. Cuisenaire rods to teach word order in sentences, to use as manipulatives in dyad activities, and to teach adjectives; 12. Colored chalk to teach word order, to differentiate between speakers in a dialogue, and to illustrate question and answer format [2].

When working with learners, even if you use a textbook, you should consider a range of teaching aids to supplement the work from the text. This range will help you to address the varying learning styles and modalities of the learners and also, especially in the case of authentic material, help prepare them for communication in the real world.

Especially important are graded materials designed for the teaching of reading. Graded reading materials are essential at every stage from the introduction to reading in association with audio and visual "props", through the elementary stage of reading familiar material to intensive and extensive reading.

Graded materials are also important for the development of writing skills. - Appropriately designed and selected these materials are needed to cover all stages from the introduction to writing through copy writing, memory writing and dictation to guided composition, and finally to free composition. Visual aids can provide a useful stimulus for writing, especially at the stage of guided composition.

Teaching materials can also be used to assist in the general development of the pupil's personality, and this is of great educational value.


Teacher, which is in the modern school , not only need to know the range of available tools and their didactic purpose. But to effectively use each of the tools . For only fully using not only basic but also aids learning can achieve the goals of learning a foreign language.

XI century - the century of high technologies. The teacher was free to use in the classroom various technical means, such as a computer, video and audio equipment, satellite TV , Internet, and more. This allows : to make language lessons more interesting and productive, increase students' motivation to learn foreign languages. After using the latest technological tools , students studying a foreign language is not easy , but it can be fully used, for example , communicating with foreign peers as the e-mail address (which allows students to train in a letter ), and using veb - camera ( which allows students to practice speaking in ).

The use of modern language teaching , such as computer, video and audio recordings, the use of television, Internet and others allows you to: -Fill in the absence of alien environment all stages of language learning . -To increase motivation of students to study foreign languages. -More fully realize the important didactic principle of clarity . -Provide training to the individual typological features of each student. -Ensure the development of auditory skills of self-control . -To carry out many exercises of all students at the same time, including speaking.

Unfortunately, all teachers understand the true value of the use of technology in learning a foreign language and seek it.


  1. Adewoyin J. A . Introduction to Educational Technology. Lagos: John Lad Publishers Ltd. – 1991. – 156 p.
  2. Lyakhovitskii M., Methods of teaching foreign languages. AM - High School - 1981. – 160 p.
  3. Methods of teaching foreign languages in elementary and secondary school principal. Rostov - on - Don , 2004. – 414 p.
  4. Passov Y.I., Communication method of teaching language speaking . M - Education, 1991. – 205 p.
  5. Polat E. S . Internet during lessons foreign. – № 2,3. – 2001.
  6. Polat E. S. Methods of use of foreign languages in the language lab vocational schools. AM - High School - 1988. – 160 p.
  7. Publications. Asokhia M. O. Kindergarten/ Primary English Language laboratory: Twenty-First century fashion: Educational perspectives. Lagos State University, 5(2). - 2002. – P. 20-27.
  8. Tevs D. P., Podkovyrov V. M., Apolskyh E. I., Afonin N. V. Use of modern information and communication technologies in protses. Barnaul. – BHPU. – 2006. – 256 p.
  9. Zakharov I. G. IT education: Learning. User for students pedagogical institutions. – Moscow. – 2003. – 78 p.

Особисті інструменти
Ми в мережі