Зіміна В.В. «Go» phrases: general characteristics and ways of usage

Матеріал з PSYH.KIEV.UA -- Вісник психології і соціальної педагогіки

Перейти до: навігація, пошук

Зіміна Валерія Владиславівна – студентка Педагогічного інституту Київського університету імені Бориса Грінченка, напрям підготовки «Початкова освіта», кафедра іноземних мов і методик їх навчання Київського університету імені Бориса Грінченка

У статті автор розкриває поняття «сталий вираз», висвітлює важливість їх використання в усній і писемній мові, пояснює різницю між сталими виразами, фразовими дієсловами та ідіомами, дає стислу характеристику виразів з дієсловом ‘to go’ та приклади щодо їх використання в різних ситуаціях, описує випадки вживання слова ‘go’ в ролі іменника.

Ключові слова: дієслово «to go», висловлювання, вислови, сталі вирази, фразові дієслова, ідіоми.

В статье автор раскрывает понятие «оборот речи», освещает важность их употребления в устной и письменной речи, объясняет разница между устойчивыми выражениями, идиомами и фразовыми глаголами, даёт краткую характеристику выражениям с глаголом "to go" и примеры их использования в различных ситуациях, описывает случаи употребления слова ‘go’ в роли имени существительного.

Ключевые слова: глагол «to go», фраза, устойчивое выражение, фразовые глаголы, идиомы.

In the article the author reveals the concept of expressions, highlights the importance of using them in oral and written speech, explains the difference between collocations, phrasal verbs and idioms, briefly characterizes phrases with the verb 'to go' and gives examples of their use in different situations, describes the uses of the word 'go' as a noun.

Key words: verb ‘to go’, phrases, set expressions, collocations, phrasal verbs, idioms.


Relevance of the topic

Nowadays English is one of the most widely spoken languages. A whopping 60 of the world’s 196 countries have English as their official language. It’s the language of business and global market, art and literature, diplomacy and education. Furthermore, 55% of the world’s webpages are written in English. So, it is not surprising that English is studied everywhere.

Present-day English abounds in formations and specializing in expressing various sorts of communicative meanings. Expressions are the one of these formations. Moreover, knowledge of them is vital for the competent use of the language. This makes phrases an interesting area for language learning.

The analysis of research

The problem of characterizing phrases is one of the central issues in scientific researches by native and foreign linguistics such as K. Barancev, M. Boather, P. Durrant, G. Francis, P. Howarth, S. Hunston, A. Kunin, M. Lewis, M. McCarthy, L. Medvedieva, N. Nesselhauf, I. Oleinyk, A. Partington, P. Pecina, J. Sinclair, R. Spears, M. Stubbs and others.

The purpose formulation of research

Thus, in the course of our work we try to give the explanation of ‘go’ expressions and deliver such goals as:

1. clearly delineating collocations, phrasal verbs and idioms;

2. describing and categorizing the most common phrases with verb ‘to go’.

The main material

The verb ‘to go’ is a common verb in English and has numerous meanings [2]:

- to move or proceed, especially to or from a point or in a certain direction: ‘to go to London’;

- to proceed towards a particular person or place with some specified intention or purpose: ‘I must go and get that book’;

- to operate or function effectively: ‘The radio won't go’;

- to become: ‘His face went red with embarrassment’;

- to make a noise as specified: ‘The gun went bang’;

- to enter into a specified state or condition: ‘to go into hysterics’;

- to lead, extend, or afford access: ‘This route goes to the north’;

- to follow a course as specified; fare: ‘The lecture went badly’;

- to be applied or allotted to a particular purpose or recipient: ‘His money went on drink’;

- to fail or give way: ‘My eyesight is going’;

- to die: ‘The old man went at 2 am’;

- to bet or bid: ‘I go two hearts’;

- to perform well; be successful: ‘That group can really go’;

- to say (widely used, especially in the historic present, in reporting dialogue): ‘Then she goes, 'Give it to me!' and she just snatched it’.

But ‘go’ also can be not only in the form of a verb, but also in the form of a noun [1]:

- an attempt to do something: ‘Georgina passed her driving test on her first go’;

- an opportunity to play in a game, or to do or use something: ‘Can I have a go on your bike?’;

- the condition of being energetic and active: ‘You're full of go this morning’;

- an attack, sensually verbal: ‘She had a real go at them’;

- a turn: ‘It's my go next’.

As we see, the verb ‘to go’ collocates with different parts of speech so learning of various types of expressions can really diversify our language.

According to the Collins Dictionary a ‘phrase’ is a group of words which has a particular meaning when used together [2]. There are many types of expressions but in this article we’ll scrutinize collocations, idioms and phrasal verbs.

The verb ‘to collocate’ has the following meanings: to place together, to arrange in proper order. So, collocations are typical word combinations that regularly occur in English speech and writing. They consist of two or more words that frequently go together and show how these words combine with each other. [3, p. 10] The simple way to describe collocations is to say that they ‘just sounds right’ to native English speakers. There is no derivation in collocations, i. e., they mean exactly what their words are. There are seven main different methods of forming ‘Go’ collocations [6, p. 13].

- VERB + NOUN: ‘Going bankrupt can help pull you out of debt, but it's rarely the best option’;

- VERB+ADJECTIVE: ‘The apples will go bad if they are not eaten soon’, ‘I started going bald in my twenties’;

- VERB + ADVERB: ‘The man was in prison for two years but now he wants to go straight’:

- GO + TO (when we speak about a place): ‘He talked some more then ended up saying he had to go to a meeting’, ‘Are you going to the post office later?’.

But there are some phrases where the particle ‘to’ is omitted. For example: go home, go outside, go upstairs, go abroad: ‘I'll go home as soon as I've checked these documents’, ‘I think I'll go upstairs and lie down for half an hour’.

- GO + ____ING: ‘When I was a child, I often went swimming in the river’,

‘My uncle and I often go fishing together’, ‘Or go missing Angus said bluntly, to get things moving’;

GO (OUT) FOR: ‘Would you like to go out for a drink tonight?’, ‘Nicaragua, she said, was not the kind of place you would go for a holiday’, ‘It's such a beautiful day. I think I'll go out for a walk in the woods’:

- GO ON: ‘She isn't in the office this week. She's gone on holiday’, ‘You've been putting on a lot of weight recently. You should go on a diet’.

Collocations should not be confused with idioms. Idioms are groups of words in a fixed order that have a meaning that cannot be guessed by knowing the meaning of the individual words. [5, p. 16] For example:

- go along with you: an expression of irritation, impatience, mistrust:

‘Michelangelo commented: "Today is Friday and you’ll have finish first instead of bistecca. Go along with you, I’m not hungry. "’;

- go with the flow: take things as they come: ‘There's no need to worry. Everything will be OK if you just go with the flow’;

- go all out: to use all of one's energy or resources for something: ‘We plan to go all out for my sister's wedding’;

- go ape: to become very excited, to behave in a crazy way: ‘My father went ape when he heard how much money I had spent’;

- go at it hammer and tongs: to fight or argue with great strength or energy: ‘The couple goes at it hammer and tongs every evening’;

- go Dutch: to each pay for himself or herself (used for two or more people): ‘Young people always go Dutch when they go on a date’:

- go-getter: an ambitious person who works hard to become successful: ‘My friend is a go-getter. He works hard and is very successful’;

- go to pieces: to lose one's self-control: ‘The woman went to pieces when she learned about her father`s death’. [4, p. 132]

Second common mistake is equation collocations and phrasal verbs (especially collocations with ‘go’). Phrasal verbs are words that consist of a verb and a participle. [8, p. 6] Participles can be prepositions or adverbs: at, for, in, of, in, (a)round, etc. Sometimes when you meet combinations of a verb and a participle it is impossible to guess the meaning in the context from the meaning of each other. Their distinctive feature is that you often can replace the phrasal verb by a single-word verb, for example:

I made the neighbor kids go away (leave) by yelling at them.

Things are going along (progressing) quite nicely in my job.

The cost of gasoline is going down (decreased). [7, p. 87]

Here are some more common phrasal verbs with definition and specific examples:

Go after someone To follow someone My brother tried to go after the thief in his car.
Go after something To try to achieve something I went after my dream and now I am a published writer.
Go against someone To compete, to oppose We are going against the best football team in the city tonight.
Go along with To agree with a person or idea In the end, he went along with Jack even though he had said he agreed with me.
Go ahead To start, to proceed Please go ahead and eat before the good gets cold.
Go back To return to a place I have to go back home and get my lunch.
Go by To pass Three hours went by.
Go out with someone To date Jesse has been going out with Luke since they met last winter.
Go over something To review Please go over your answers before you submit your test.
Go over To visit someone nearby I haven’t seen Tina for a long time. I thing I’ll go over for an hour or two.
Go without something To suffer lack or deprivation When I was young, we went without winter boots.
Go down To decrease or reduce The cost of gasoline is going down.
Go for To enjoy having, crave (idiomatically: hit the spot) It's so hot out. I could really go for an ice cold glass of lemonade.
Go through To examine endure, to experience difficulties I would never want to go through what she has.
Go off To make a loud noise or to explode My alarm clock went off at 7:00 a.m.
Go out To leave home to go on a social event We’re going out for a dinner tonight.
Go with To match, to be similar to My shirt and pants are both blue. They go with each other.
Go on To happen What is going on in China right now?


During our research we have reviewed and examined such problems as giving a distinction between such similar concepts as collocations, idioms and phrasal verbs and showing the difference between them at specific examples.

So in the course of our work we have discovered that the knowledge of numerous fixed expressions plays an essential role in communication and thus, seems obviously important for foreign learners of English.

Список використаних джерел

  1. Cambridge Dictionary [Electronic Resource]. http://dictionary.cambridge.org/
  2. Collins Dictionary [Electronic Resource]. http://www.collinsdictionary.com/
  3. McCarthy M. English Collocations in Use / M. McCarthy, F. O’Dell. – UK: Cambridge University Press, 2005. – 158 p.
  4. McCarthy M. English Idioms in Use / M. McCarthy, F. O’Dell. – UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002. – 210 p.
  5. Medvedieva L. M. & Medvedieva N. U. (1992). Anglo-ukrainsko-rosijskij slovnyk ustalenyh vyraziv [English-Ukrainian-Russian Dictionary of Pragmatic Idioms]. Kyiv: Ukr. Encyklopediia [in Ukrainian]
  6. O’Dell F. English Collocations Advanced in Use / F. O’Dell, M. McCarthy. – UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008. – 192 p.
  7. Oxford Phrasal Verbs Dictionary. – UK: Oxford University Press, 2002. – 348 p.
  8. Spears R. A. McGraw-Hill’s Essential Phrasal Verb Dictionary / R. A. Spears. – NY: The McGraw-Hill Companies, 2007. – 246 p.

Особисті інструменти
Ми в мережі