Івахненко Ю.О. Reading as an Aim and a Means of Teaching and Learning a Foreign Language

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Івахненко Ю.О. – студентка Педагогічного інституту Київського університету імені Бориса Грінченка, спеціальність «Початкова освіта», кафедра іноземних мов і методик їх навчання Київського університету імені Бориса Грінченка

Анотація: У статті розглянута проблема навчання учнів початкової школи читанню англійською мовою, а саме основні помилки під час читання. Запропоновані шляхи вирішення проблем читання.

Ключові слова: читання, мета, засіб, навчання, учні початкової школи.

Аннотация: В статье рассмотрена проблема обучения учащихся начальной школы чтению на английском языке, а именно основные ошибки в процессе чтения. Предложены пути решения проблем техники чтения.

Ключевые слова: чтение, цель, средство, обучение, учащиеся начальной школы.

Annotation: The problem of teaching reading of primary school pupils in English, namely basic mistakes when reading are considered in the article. The ways of solving the difficulties in reading are pointed out.

Key words: reading, aim, means, teaching, primary school pupils.


Problem setting

In our time, the aim of mastering a foreign language is to acquire the required level of foreign language communicative competence, which would be sufficient for communication in certain areas of communication.

Analysis of recent achievements and publications

The problem of learning to read in a foreign language was seen in various aspects such scientists as M. V. Denisenko [1], Z. I. Klychnikova [2], G. E. Malkovskyy [3], R. Y. Martynova [4], G. V. Rogova [7], N. C. Sklyarenko [8], A. P. Starkov [9].

Despite the presence of a number of publications on this subject in national trials there are still problematic aspects.

The objective of the article

The importance and relevance of research problem, its theoretical and practical development determined the aim of the article as is to investigate a problem of teaching reading of primary school pupils in English.

The statement of the fundamental material

Reading is one of the main skills that a pupil must acquire in the process of mastering a foreign language in school. The syllabus for foreign languages lists reading as one of the leading language activities to be developed. It runs: “To read, without a dictionary, texts containing familiar grammar material and no more than 4-6 unfamiliar words per 100 words of the text the meaning of which, as a rule, should be clear from the context or familiar word-building elements (in the eight-year school). Pupils are to read, with the help of a dictionary, easy texts containing familiar grammar material and 6-8 unfamiliar words per 100 words of the text (in the ten-year school)”. Therefore reading is one of the practical aims of teaching a foreign language in school.

Reading is of great educational importance, as reading is a means of communication, people get information they need from books, journals, magazines, newspapers, etc. Through reading in a foreign language the pupil enriches his knowledge of the world around him. He gets acquainted with the countries where the target language is spoken [6, p. 177].

To solve the mistakes to be effective, they must first be identified. Mistakes can be divided into three groups. The first related mistakes related to differences between grapheme and sound systems of English (Intralingual interference). These mistakes occur during the identification of graphic signs and their scoring (articulation).

The second group includes mistakes related to stress in different types of words when reading aloud. The third - mistakes that occur during intonation, articulation and logical to syntagmas stress reading sentences. The reason for of these mistakes is non verbal emphasis rules and order of words in a sentence between native and foreign languages (interlingual interference) [5, p. 176].

Determination of the three groups of mistakes helps build logical process to resolve them. Need to work hard on the technique of reading aloud as training actions initially formed in external speech, and then transferred to the internal plan. It is important to quickly bring to the stage a holistic perception of blocks of words, or Literal reading will hinder understanding of the content. This contributes to Syntagma reading that extends the “right reading”, the unit of perception. Mastering the technique of reading accompanied by mental work to discerning semantic visual form, then you must teach the technique of reading a familiar story with elements of novelty.

Before the process of learning a foreign language in elementary and primary school in the language of memory in language memory of students, of course, no auditory-motor images of foreign material.

If learning techniques starts reading from the beginning of learning a foreign language, students have to relate not only sounds and letters, but the sound-letter relationships with semantic value that reading. This makes them more difficult. That is why their solution is often performed oral introductory course, oral advance to accumulate the necessary and sufficient foreign language material to form auditory-motor images of foreign speech and thus remove the error of correlation in the letters and the sounds of a foreign language.

It is noteworthy that the accumulation of foreign material diverse as the basis for learning techniques of reading the original language unit is the word [2].

Training techniques of reading in a foreign language should be for a well-known lexical material already learned in speech. This is achieved by an oral introductory course of oral advance. According to the Z. I. Klychnykova[2] essence of oral advance is to ensure that students begin to read when they worked articulation of sounds, syllables, words and even small phrases. However G. V. Rogova[7] and I. M. Vereshchagina[7] about oral introductory course note that previous oral testing training material helps to relieve of difficulties that hinder the understanding of the content. Verbal advance helps content plan, that students need to understand what they read, but almost does not help in procedural terms. This phenomenon is typical for reading and mastering the mother tongue; child, fluent spoken language is facing great difficulty procedural plan (how to read). Thus, an oral introductory course, oral advance do not guarantee successful mastering the technique of reading a foreign language.

Numerous facts differences between grapheme-phonemic systems of native and foreign languages, differences in pronunciation of the same characters in different combination of letters, as well as cases of various graphic images of the same sound place in German, French and especially English.

The authors of the methodology of teaching English in primary school believe that mastering English reading is very difficult for students that caused graphics and spelling peculiarities of language as a spelling system uses 26 letters, 146 Count (letter combinations) that deliver 46 phonemes. Of the 26 pairs of English letters (large and small), only four can be considered similar to the corresponding letters of the Russian alphabet in meaning and form. This is K, k, M, T. The letters A, a, B, b, C, c, E, e, H, O, o, P, p, Y, y, X, x occur in this and in another language, but read differently, therefore, is the most difficult. Other letters are brand new.

G. V. Rogova[7] and I. M. Vereshchagina[7] also point to greater difficulty reading vowels, combinations of vowels and consonants some read differently depending on the position in words. For example: man-name, day-rain, this-think, pencil-cat, Geography-garden, window-down.

In teaching students reading must be learned the basic rules of reading, which should include: reading vowels under stress in open and closed syllables before “g”; Reading combinations of vowels ee, ea, ay, ai, oy, oo, ou, ow; consonants c, s, k, g, ch, sh, th, ng, ck and such combinations as-tion, -sion, -ous, -igh.

Pupils should be taught to read words that are written differently and read the same: sun-son, two-too, write-right, sea-see, and others.

At the same time, many words in English have not read the rules that general cases sets students on learning over a large number of rules and exceptions to read them as well as repetition of educational material. Moreover, it is the perception of sound and graphic signs are the result of choice and comparison of them with those standards that are already in long-term memory of the student. The fact of selection, which involves remembering the necessary rules and (or) sound literal compliance requires a certain, sometimes considerable time, which ultimately slows down the pace of reading, or rather does not allow the student to quickly and accurately establish sound Letter like compliance and thus master the technique of reading in a very high rate [6].

Conclusion and the prospects of the above research

So, given the above, it may be noted that the resolution of errors when reading skills is to create instant sound perception and graphic images of words, phrases, sentences. In order to solve the problems in reading, teachers should involve students in active creative work, creating different situations of speech communication where pupils accumulation and expansion of lexical dictionary, as a basis for successful mastery of reading.

Ideally reading in a foreign language must bear its own character, carried not by constraint, but accompanied by a side interest in children.


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